Add to basket Add to wishlist Description In "Overseers of the Poor," John Gilliom confronts the everyday politics of surveillance by exploring the worlds and words of those who know it best-the watched. Arguing that the current public conversation about surveillance and privacy rights is rife with political and conceptual failings, Gilliom goes beyond the critics and analysts to add fresh voices, insights, and perspectives.
They were started as a method of providing a less expensive to the taxpayers alternative to what we would now days call "welfare" - what was called "outdoor relief" in those days.
People requested help from the community Overseer of the Poor sometimes also called a Poor Master - an elected town official. If the need was great or likely to be long-term, they were sent to the poorhouse instead of being given relief while they continued to live independently.
Sometimes they were sent there even if they had not requested help from the Overseer of the Poor. That was usually done when they were found guilty of begging in public, etc. Outdoor Relief provided through an Overseer of the Poor: When people fell upon hard times and members of their family, friends or members of their church congregations could not provide enough assistance to tide them over, they made application to an elected local official called the Overseer of the Poor.
Within a budget of tax money, he might provide them with food, fuel, clothing, or even permission to get medical treatment to be paid out of tax funds. Auctioning off the Poor: People who could not support themselves and their families were put up for bid at public auction.
In an unusual type of auction, the pauper was sold to the lowest bidder the person who would agree to provide room and board for the lowest price -- usually this was for a specific period of a. This was actually a form of indentured servitude.
It sounds a lot like slavery -- except that it was technically not for the pauper's entire lifetime. And it had many of the perils of slavery. The welfare of the paupers depended almost entirely upon the kindness and fairness of the bidder.
If he was motivated only by a desire to make the maximum profit off the "use" of the pauper, then concern for "the bottom line" might result in the pauper being denied adequate food, or safe and comfortable shelter, or even necessary medical treatment. And there often was very little recourse for protection against abuse.
See scan of an authentic record of an auction in in Sandown NH.
Contracting with someone in the community to care for Paupers: In this situation the care of a group of paupers was delegated to the person s who would contract to provide care at, again, the lowest price. There were still often the same opportunities for abuse that were noted above.
In some cases before state laws began to require the establishment of County Poorhouses local communities had already discovered that a place to house paupers helped reduce the cost of poor relief. These small town poorhouses were the prototypes for the later state-required county poorhouses.
Those earlier poorhouses often instituted the use of an adjacent farm on which the paupers could work to raise their own food, thus making the houses more self-sufficient relying less on local tax funds.
That is how the term "poor farm" came into being. These poorhouses were built with great optimism. They promised to be a much more efficient and cheaper way to provide relief to paupers.The disciplinary gaze of a central overseer was directed towards the many; 6 John Gilliom, ‘Struggling with Surveillance: Resistance, Consciousness, and Identity’, in Kevin either do no good or single them out for worse treatment—as Gilliom found in his classic study with mothers on welfare The Poor Law Reform Act of (New Poor Law) ended the poor relief system and established unions composed of about six parishes overseen by Guardians of the Poor.
Boards of Guardians administered each union and .
In" Overseers of the Poor," John Gilliom confronts the everyday politics of surveillance by exploring the worlds and words of those who know it best-the watched. Arguing that the current public conversation about surveillance and privacy rights is rife with political and conceptual failings, Gilliom goes beyond the critics and analysts to add Author: John Gilliom.
An overseer of the poor was an official who administered poor relief such as money, food, and clothing in England and various other countries which derived their law from England such as the United States. People requested help from the community Overseer of the Poor (sometimes also called a Poor Master) - an elected town official.
If the need was great or likely to be long-term, they were sent to the poorhouse instead of being given relief while they continued to live independently. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study.
The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.