It had a small industrial base concentrated in the Blackstone and Merrimac river valleys of New England and the Delaware River valley between Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware. The largest manufacturing industry was flour milling, followed by the production of leather goods, and then other food processing, including distilling.
During these years, the nation was transformed from an underdeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen into an urbanized economic powerhouse.
As the industrialized North and the agricultural South grew further apart, five major trends dominated American economic, social, and political life during this period.
First, the Market Revolution—the shift from an agricultural economy to one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services—completely changed the northern and western economy between and After Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and perfected manufacturing with interchangeable parts, the North experienced a manufacturing boom that continued well into the next century.
Internal improvements such as the Erie Canal and the Cumberland Road, combined with new modes of transportation such as the steamboat and railroad, allowed goods and crops to flow easily and cheaply between the agricultural West and manufacturing North.
The growth of manufacturing also spawned the wage labor system. Second, American society urbanized drastically during this era. The United States had been a land comprised almost entirely of farmers, but aroundmillions of people began to move to the cities.
They, along with several million Irish and German immigrants, flooded northern cities to find jobs in the new industrial economy. Comprised mostly of white-collar workers and skilled laborers, this growing middle class became the driving force behind a variety of reform movements.
Among these were movements to reduce consumption of alcohol, eliminate prostitution, improve prisons and insane asylums, improve education, and ban slavery.
Religious revivalism, resulting from the Second Great Awakening, also had a large impact on American life in all parts of the country.
Inspired by the old Democratic-Republicans, John C. Others, such as President Andrew Jackson and Chief Justice John Marshall, believed that the federal government had authority over the states.
The debate came to a head in the Nullification Crisis of —, which nearly touched off a civil war. Between andmore and more northerners came to realize the horrors and injustices of slavery, while southerners grew increasingly reliant upon it to support their cotton-based economy.
Northerners did not necessarily want social and political equality for blacks; they sought merely their emancipation. The debate in politics centered primarily on the westward expansion of slavery, which southern elites saw as vital to the survival of their aristocratic social and economic order.
Others vehemently opposed the expansion of slavery outside the South. The debate was critical in the Missouri crisis, the annexation of Texas, and after the Mexican War.
Finally, the issue of westward expansion itself had a profound effect on American politics and society during the antebellum years. In the wake of the War ofmany nationalistic Americans believed that God intended for them to spread democracy and Protestantism across the entire continent.
Policymakers capitalized on public sentiment to acquire Florida and Oregon and declared war on Mexico in to seize Texas, California, and everything in between. Ultimately, these trends irreconcilably split the North from the South.Contents viii Book V. The Consolidation of Nation States and Industrialization, Chapter I.
Politics and Religion 1. The Concert of Europe: Reaction and Revolution, 9. Analyze the political, economic, and religious tensions between immigrant Roman Catholics and native-born Protestants in the United States from the s through the s. Analyze the impact of the market revolution () on the economies of two of the following regions: Northeast, Midwest, South.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about to sometime between and This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of .
The free black population of the United States increased from to because of all of the following reasons EXCEPT the continuing immigration of blacks from Africa.
Between and , the number of free blacks doubled in the United States. WAR AND COMMERCIAL INDEPENDENCE, (OVERVIEW) Between and the United States struggled to be taken seriously as an international political and economic power, even as rapid internal growth began to change the character of the nation.
4. Explain the ways in which early industrialization in the United States changed daily work routines and market relationships. 5. Examine the impact of the transportation revolution on the economic development of American society. 6. Examine the promotion of economic growth by .