Topics will include a review of tips for good study design, a discussion of constructing an effective abstract, and important considerations when writing a manuscript, including the choice of a journal to which a manuscript will be submitted, word usage, data presentation, and authorship considerations.
The ultimate aim of the effort is the creation of flight vehicles more advanced than their predecessors. Because of the complexity—i. The concept of research is as old as science; the concept of the intimate relationship between research and subsequent development, however, was not generally recognized until the s.
Research and development is the beginning of most systems of industrial production.
The innovations that result in new products and new processes usually have their roots in research and have followed a path from laboratory idea, through pilot or prototype production and manufacturing start-up, to full-scale production and market introduction. The foundation of any innovation is an invention.
Indeed, an innovation might be defined as the application of an invention to a significant market need. Inventions come from research—careful, focused, sustained inquiry, frequently trial and error. Research can be either basic or applied, a distinction that was established in the first half of the 20th century.
Basic research is defined as the work of scientists and others who pursue their investigations without conscious goals, other than the desire to unravel the secrets of nature.
An example of this is the research being done on gene splicing or cloning in pharmaceutical company laboratories. Applied research carries the findings of basic research to a point where they can be exploited to meet a specific need, while the development stage of research and development includes the steps necessary to bring a new or modified product or process into production.
In Europethe United States, and Japan the unified concept of research and development has been an integral part of economic planningboth by government and by private industry.
History and importance The first organized attempt to harness scientific skill to communal needs took place in the s, when the young revolutionary government in France was defending itself against most of the rest of Europe. The results were remarkable. Explosive shells, the semaphore telegraph, the captive observation balloon, and the first method of making gunpowder with consistent properties all were developed during this period.
The lesson was not learned permanently, however, and another half century was to pass before industry started to call on the services of scientists to any serious extent. At first the scientists consisted of only a few gifted individuals. Bunsen, in Germany, advised on the design of blast furnaces.
Perkin, in England, showed how dyes could be synthesized in the laboratory and then in the factory. William Thomson Lord Kelvinin Scotland, supervised the manufacture of telecommunication cables.
|Introduction and definitions||Figures 5 An aerial view of Bukum Refinery, just off the shore of Singapore. By kind permission of Shell International Ltd.|
|History and importance||In bridging digital systems and physical entities and processes, they can find new ways to create value for customers, become more competitive by launching digitized products and services, and optimize their processes and operations. Most specialty chemical manufacturers already own at least some of the building blocks that make an Industry 4.|
In the United States, Leo H. Baekeland, a Belgian, produced Bakelite, the first of the plastics. There were inventors, too, such as John B.
Dunlop, Samuel Morse, and Alexander Graham Bellwho owed their success more to intuitionskill, and commercial acumen than to scientific understanding.
While industry in the United States and most of western Europe was still feeding on the ideas of isolated individuals, in Germany a carefully planned effort was being mounted to exploit the opportunities that scientific advances made possible.
Siemens, Krupp, Zeiss, and others were establishing laboratories and, as early asemployed several hundred people on scientific research.
In the Physicalische Technische Reichsanstalt Imperial Institute of Physics and Technology was set up to establish common standards of measurement throughout German industry.
It was followed by the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft later renamed the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Sciencewhich provided facilities for scientific cooperation between companies.
National Bureau of Standards was established in31 years after its German counterpart, and it was not until the years immediately preceding World War I that the major American companies started to take research seriously.
Except for Germany, progress in Europe was even slower. Even in France, which had an outstanding record in pure scienceindustrial penetration was negligible. World War I produced a dramatic change. Attempts at rapid expansion of the arms industry in the belligerent as well as in most of the neutral countries exposed weaknesses in technology as well as in organization and brought an immediate appreciation of the need for more scientific support.The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives.
While many of the products from the industry, such as detergents, soaps and perfumes, are purchased directly by the consumer, 70% of chemicals manufactured are used to make products.
Flexible Hybrid Electronics and MEMS Integration: Applications, Challenges, Approaches, and Technology Gaps Wilfried Bair Vice President of Engineering NextFlex. Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) are a novel and supply chain disrupting approach to electronic systems.
Oct 03, · Topic Lean six sigma in chemical/petrochemical industry. Is lean six sigma methodology suitable to be used in a chemical or petrochemical manufacturing industry where the production output is a continous process?
October 2, at pm # melvin. Participant. 1. Introduction. The quality in the pharmaceutical industry has become a very important topic. Since the world has gathered together to harmonize its practices and guides and the launching of the FDA current good manufacturing practices – the cGMP; for the 21st century – there has been a growing awareness for the significance of the quality of the pharmaceutical products (Woodcock, ).
To prepare your chemical manufacturing business for the industry chemical industry, first understand that industry is a practice, not a product. Empowering your employees to accomplish your company’s objectives and their own professional goals should be an aspect of any Industry planning and projects.
Sep 24, · Type of Manufacturing Application of this guidance to steps (shown in gray) used in this type of manufacturing; Chemical Manufacturing: Production of the API starting material.