Effects Psychological effects Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.
School is an obvious place to discuss drug-related issues, but it would seem that this is rarely done from a harm reduction perspective. This digest explains why this might be so, describesthe Australian experience, addressessome barriers, and summarizes some insights which have emerged from applying harm reduction programmes in Australian Schools.
The three authors are each experienced researchers and practitioners in school-based drug education. Geoff Munro has recently developed the 'Next Step', which is one of thefirst school drug education resources that addresses illicit drug usefrom a harm reduction perspective.
Drinking and other drug taking usually starts ure. According to Dielman this can mean that im- during youth.
Most young people go to school and portant programme effects are overlooked . Schools are places of In re-examining what drug education should re- learning; ipso facto, use schools to educate young alistically achieve, harm reduction is a useful con- people about the pitfalls of using alcohol and other struct.
Harm reduction has a pedigree of at least 20 drugs and thus keep them from harm. Despite this years in the drug literature, according to Erickson seemingly inherent logic, drug education has not , but it has gained greater prominence in recent been greatly successful, which a number of re- years, because of the efforts of an avant-garde group searchers put down to the emphasis of abstinence as of public health officials, responding to the sudden the only acceptable programme goal .
This group was seeking effective ways of ing factor is that the NDS and much school drug reducing the spread of HIV infection among inject- education research have different conceptual under- ing drug users who were unlikely to be responsive to pinnings and seek to achieve different objectives.
They developed a number of practical harmful effects of drugs and drug use in Australian strategies, such as needle exchange, which empha- societ " [7, p. In contrast, drug education re- sized preventing or minimizing the harm associated search tends to be framed in terms of abstinence with drug use, rather than stopping use.
This is probably because the great ma- approaches were given the label harm minimization jority of studies have taken place in the United or harm reduction. States, where prevention is strongly tied to absti- Evaluation of programmes that focus on harm nence and harm reduction is not generally con- reduction indicate that they have been successful in sidered a legitimate goal.
As US federal meant that the approach is now well accepted in guidelines actually mandate that prevention pro- many European countries and forms the basis of grams emphasize 'zero tolerance' and abstinence, it is Canadian and Australian national drug strategies not surprising that most research on the effective- [6,7].
The concept, however, is still not well under- ness of drug education has abstinence as the crite- stood outside the alcohol and drug field and contin- rion for success . Despite this, American dominance of drug education literature harm reduction is progressively being accepted as a useful way of dealing with drug use in an ever School-based drug education has been a cornerstone broader range of contexts, including school-based of the US anti-drug campaign for over two decades drug education [4,9,10].
Incorporating harm re- and US literature on the subject has clearly shaped duction into drug education does not mean that the global thinking . During this period a con- controversies have been resolved.
|The review identifies several areas that should be the focus of future programmes.|
|Background A tumor marker is a substance such as a protein, antigen or hormone in the body that may indicate the presence of cancer.|
|The Power Hour News||As Anti-Media often notes, these stories are not entirely unreported by the media.|
|In particular, delivering prevention for substance use to school students via the Internet appears to be an area of great potential.|
|Received Oct 6; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.|
They remain, and siderable number of programmes have been devel- in the school context are manifested in the concerns oped, but none has been more widely used of key stakeholders, such as parents, students and domestically and proselytized internationally than teachers, as to what drug education for young people Project DARE Drug Abuse Resistance Education should achieve.
The programme was developed in by In recent years the amount of school-based drug the Los Angeles Police Department and the Los education has increased steadily in most western Angeles Unified School District, with the intention countries, including Australia .
The level of of teaching students the skills to resist drug use. In deciding how since its inception . In making these curricula available within the United States . In choices the National Drug Strategy NDS is the their review they found that 10 curricula had been logical first point of reference.
It has the ability to subjected to a reasonable standard of evaluation and provide a unifying, coherent sense of direction and of these, eight had demonstrated some effect in context .
Specific approaches can then be guided reducing drug use.
Life Skills Training, which in- by research evidence which identifies those interven- volved broad interactive personal and social skills tions or intervention components most likely to training, was identified by these researchers as the produce the desired change.
However, a complicat- programme that demonstrated the longest-lasting Harm Reduction Digest 2 change. Although Gorman has questioned the reduction excludes abstinence. Rather, k study's findings on the basis of small sample size in means that harm reduction needs to be seen as a goal some instances, school level allocation of subjects and rather than a strategy .
Within a harm reduction the somewhat arbitrary collapsing of variables into framework abstinence may be an appropriate strat- dichotomous scales . The two programmes that egy, but it is not an end in itself.
It is particularly interesting that DARE, how they have been effective and what are the the most widely used drug education programme common underlying strategies employed by those and the one that explicitly sought abstinence was also programmes that have demonstrated effectiveness.
In one that produced no long-term change in drug- this way there is some means to objectively differen- using behaviour. Rosenbanm in fact reported that tiate between those programmes that may simply be DARE actually appears to have an adverse effect on well known and those that change behaviour.
This drug activity in suburban communities. Students in may seem somewhat self-evident, but the American these communities who were exposed to DARE experience is that a great deal of money earmarked actually had significantly higher drug use than com- for drug education is spent on aggressively marketing Parable students who did not receive the DARE programmes that have either not been evaluated, or programme .
Australia is not American drug education programmes, but one pro- immune from this sort of decision-making, with a gramme, the Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study case in point being the support received by Life AMPS did directly compare rates of increase in Education.
This high profile, early intervention pro- harms deriving from alcohol use in two student co- gramme continues receiving extensive public funding horts [2,24]. One group had been taught the misuse in several Australian jurisdictions, despite research prevention curriculum.Harm minimization is a term used to identify drug use as a public health rather than a criminal or law issue.
It is based on an acknowledgement that no matter how hard governments and others try. A report produced by the Australian National Council of Drugs (Price, ) discussing the issues of drug use in Melbourne states that “there are a number of judicial and police-diversion strategies being funded in the Melbourne area targeting drug use at the venue.
The Good Sports program (GSP) was developed in Australia specifically for sporting clubs by The Australian Drug Foundation (ADF). The GSP is an ecological approach supported by several domains—sport, health, and corporate. The Australian Well developed and stable infrastructure support Drug Foundation's Youth Alcohol and Community is required to meet the needs associated with intro- Project (YACP) found that, contrary to some expec- ducing and maintaining a harm reduction approach tations, a large majority of parents approved of in schools.
In the past, if the adoption of a harm‐minimization goal to school drug education had been made, it may well have resulted in a greater impact of school‐based programmes than is currently documented in reviews of drug education.
In this article, we use feminist critical discourse analysis to examine online brothel reviews ( reviews and 2, reply posts) of sex buyers in the context of debates surrounding harm minimization. Our findings show that sex buyers actively construct and normalize narratives of sexual violation and violence against women in licensed brothels through their language, referencing.