Revolutions of and Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic The Singing Revolution lasted over four years, with various protests and acts of defiance. Inas Soviet tanks attempted to stop the progress towards independence, the Supreme Council of Estonia together with the Congress of Estonia proclaimed the restoration of the independent state of Estonia and repudiated Soviet legislation. People acted as human shields to protect radio and TV stations from the Soviet tanks. Through these actions Estonia regained its independence without any bloodshed.
Nazi Germany Summary The rise of Nazi Germany was the capstone of the inter-war period, and led to the outbreak of World War IIshattering the tenuous peace.
The Nazi regime's progress was paralleled by the life of its leader, Adolf Hitler. Born in a small town in Austria, Hitler dreamed of being an artist.
Unable to demonstrate sufficient artistic skill for entrance into the art academy in Vienna, he did odd jobs and developed an interest in politics. InHitler joined the German army, and earned the iron cross for bravery as a message-carrier.
He was immensely disturbed by the German defeat in World War Iand blamed the loss on the socialists and Jews, who he said had surrendered the nation. Hitler had jumped onto a beer hall table and proclaimed the current Weimar government overthrown.
He and Ludendorf led their supporters into the street, and were promptly arrested. Hitler spent two years in prison, where he wrote Mein Kampf My Strugglewhich outlined his future policies, centered on the theory of Aryan superiority and Jewish inferiority. Released inHitler honed his oratorical skills and worked for the advancement of the Nazi party.
Such advancement was slow in coming through the years toa fairly stable period in Europe.
However, as the world became mired in depression and unemployment rose, so did support for the Nazi Party, which promised employment and a return to glory for the nation.
In the Nazis won There was little stability in the German government at this time, and seeking a solution to this instability, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor on January 30, Once in office, Hitler dissolved the Reichstag and persuaded Hindenburg to issue a decree granting Hitler authority to prohibit public meetings, the wearing of political uniforms, and publication of dissenting opinions.
On February 27,the Reichstag building burned down and a retarded Dutch boy claiming he worked for the communists was arrested for arson.
There is evidence to prove that the Nazis themselves had set the fire, but in any case, Hitler used the incident to persuade Hindenburg to restrict all individual rights and declare that the central government could oust any state government failing to maintain order.
Hitler systematically took control of all of the state governments this way.
Hitler's private army, the S. Even so, the Nazis only won To gain a two-thirds majority Hitler formed an alliance with the Nationalist party, and declared the communist party illegal. On March 23,the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, giving Hitler the power to make decrees with the status of law, and ending elections.
When Hindenburg died inHitler fused the positions of chancellor and president into one office: Hitler constructed the Third Reich under his dictatorship, using the Gestapo, the secret police, to stifle all dissent.
Hitler's vague policy included a planned economy in which the unemployed were put to work on government projects, working hours were shortened to open up jobs, and labor was forbidden to organize.
The government oversaw all functions of the economy. All education and speech was controlled. Curricula and textbooks were rewritten to reflect Nazi ideology, and all movies, newspapers, radio, and art were regulated by the vigilant Ministry of Propaganda, under Joseph Goebbels.
One of the Ministry's main tasks was to mobilize German anti- Semitism in support of Nazi persecution of German Jews, which would reach its climax in the Holocaust, begun in earnest in The persecution of the Jews was a major step in Hitler's plan to conquer all of Europe for the Aryan race, a plan that resulted in the outbreak of World War II.And the fourth goal of the Nazis was to prevent all aid to Germany’s enemies through espionage, sabotage, and guerrilla activity.
urging them to resist the Nazi's through civil disobedience. The churches told their congregations that it was their religious responsibility to resist. which occurred during the same period (1,2). Sources.
It's a an now-iconic photo of civil disobedience: A German man standing at a rally in Hamburg refuses to give the Nazi salute. The photo lay unnoticed for nearly 55 years, resurfacing in , when one of the children of August Landmesser identified the disobedient man as her father when the photo appeared in a German newspaper.
Act of Civil Disobedience. , the People's Court (court that saw cases that were thought of political offences against Nazi Germany) saw the case of Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst and were found guilty of treason.
They have become positive role models from Nazi period in German society. Moreover, every year since . The German army was well prepared to meet armed resistance, but less able to cope with strikes, civil disobedience, boycotts and other forms of nonviolent action.
Nazis Examples of civil disobedience during World War II were Miep Gies and her husband Jan. Miep was the secretary for Otto Frank and helped hide Otto Frank's family, along with three other Jews, in a series of secret rooms above Frank's Amsterdam office in Actually, in some instances, there were protests and civil disobedience in Nazi Germany.
One of the best known is the Rosenstrasse protest: There were people at rallies who would not salute Hitler during his rallies. The German Guy Who Refused To Give A Nazi Salute Was A Badass; There were people who would listen to the BBC .