It is therefore difficult to comprehensively define EIA, however, it can be described as a systematic process for identifying, examining, analyzing, evaluating, and predicting the impacts of planned activities or policies; involving consultation with affected stakeholders, and using the results of the analysis and consultations in planning, authorising and implementation of the activity Toro et al. In simple terms, EIA is just an information gathering exercise carried out by the proponent or other recognized bodies which enables decision-making bodies understand the potential environmental effects of a proposed project before deciding whether or not it should go ahead. EIA is thus an anticipatory futuringparticipatory environmental management tool and as such, it is based on principles such as transparency, public involvement and accountability CENN, ; RTPI, Environmental Impact Assessment EIA is essential for sustainable development; it ensures a balance economically, socially, and institutionally with the environment.
Post-development monitoring represents a crucial point in assessing the predictive force of the EIA procedure and it is becoming widely accepted as the most crucial element of any EIA system.
Most countries in developed and developing nations now have some form of EIA monitoring systems. In UK, monitoring is self- regulatory. In developing countries, monitoring practices are recent and not well coordinated even though there are regulations in place. Information on monitoring is meager, scattered and the lessons learnt from EIA experience not well documented and shared amongst stakeholders especially in Ethiopia, South Africa and Nigeria.
While the benefits and needs for monitoring are well documented, and the requirements spelt out, there seem to be only few projects that undergo monitoring in most of the ten countries surveyed in this study.
The tasks and responsibility for monitoring are shared amongst proponents, regulators and the public communities. What each partner does and when, are defined by each countries regulations.
While developed countries boast of a robust track record of public participation and openness in their monitoring activities, the developing countries lack well designed process for involving the public and the parties involved lack the required training and character.
The study proposed some recommendations which sum up to suggest that post-development monitoring can and will succeed if national governments show high level commitment and make efforts to build information exchange networks across borders.
EIA practitioners worldwide agree that impact monitoring Monitoring plays several key roles in the is one important practice through which EIA system. Monitoring transforms EIA from the increasing recognition of the roles of 2 monitoring world wide, the era where These challenges notwithstanding, the little attention is paid to the actual practice of EIA post-development effects of projects after an EIA monitoring is a key to the success of the document is completed is gradually EIA process.
The practice embraces the fissling out. Systematic follow-up and four elements of monitoring, evaluation, feedback has conferred on EIA the management and communication Arts capacity to produce real world et al.
Its success in any country environmental benefits Arts et al. Other factors that may likely affect In spite of its relevance, monitoring is the practice are the approaches and not yet a well established activity in techniques adopted and the resources most countries.
A number of finance and humans available for recognisable reasons are responsible for effective execution Morrison-Saunders this. Environmental monitoring data are et al. Also, monitoring countries and over half of the middle is time consuming and most project income countries in Africa, Asia and proponents are not usually patient South America have some form of enough to pay attention to assessing impact monitoring requirements, either baseline or future conditions Shepherd, mandatory or voluntary George, ; Monitoring agencies lack Youthed, For some it might be a guidance since existing regulations in provision more on paper than practice most countries do not provide clear like South Africa, Ethiopia, Hong Kong procedures for monitoring Wood, and Nigeria.
In some developed In some regions like the US and countries like Canada, the Netherlands Canada impact monitoring is often and Australia, impact monitoring is embroiled in fears of self-incrimination already a legislative requirement between agencies and proponents Morrison-Saunders et al.
While the benefits and needs for impact monitoring are well documented and 2. Wood, ; Kengne, ; Youthed, However, having regulations or Experiences and country goals legislative requirements in place is an are known to influence prevailing important first step in initiating EIA regulation.
Based on available monitoring of projects during the information in literature, a review of construction and operation phases. These countries are developed and have long tradition of EIA practice. The Act specifies the approach approach to EIA. The IEC also verifies and certifies protection and promote sustainable that mitigation measures are fully and development.
The legislative 5 requirements for monitoring are together with detailed project mandatory for monitoring activities and proposalsshowing that the project was they depart from what obtains in developed in compliance with the Australia and the UK Ahammed et al.
With the establishment of regulation is that it is reactive and not monitoring programmes, proponents are proactive, meaning that it is not also mandated to submit monitoring explicitly objective-oriented since reports periodically to the authority.
Analysts or decommissioning of projects with the say the scope should be extended to original EIA decision and ensure that cover all areas of sustainable monitoring programmes are properly development, not just on the biophysical implemented Jesus, The EIA regulations Portugal: According to Jesusthe introduced in the Netherlands in new EIA regulations for Portugal came contained the mandatory requirements into force incontaining well for projects evaluation.
This paper presents the results of a detailed study of environmental impact monitoring (EIM) in South Australia by first establishing a context for EIM in the form of a literature review, and by then conducting a detailed content and practice analysis on EIA documents and on actual monitoring in practice. We will also review current controversies in EIA practice, including such issues as project segmentation, indirect and cumulative impacts, misuse of mitigated FONSIs, post EIS monitoring/impact auditing, inclusion of local cooperators, and reconciling EIA practice with principles of sustainable development. This paper critically reviews EIA reports of some randomly selected projects. Interviews of EIA consultants, project proponents and concerned government officials have also been conducted to underpin the root causes of poor quality of EIA reports.
The targets are to Dutch Environmental Management Act ensure full compliance of projects with Meijer and van Vliet, The EIA decisions and enforce monitoring regulations empowered the competent and auditing in all cases. To ensure EIA authority to approve project compliance, the regulations made it decisions, provide evaluation legally binding on all proponents to programmes and define what need to be submit to competent EIA authority an done at each monitoring stage and when.After decades of development, the gap between expectations of Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and their practical performance remains significant.
Abstract Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is broadly defined as a systematic process that proactively examines the potential consequences of development actions. evaluate the EIA practice in different countries on the basis of different studies carried out by researchers.
Keywords: Environment Impact Assessment, EIA Practices, EIA Approach in Different countries. I. INTRODUCTION Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being used globally, either as a planning or management and scoping .
Environmental impact assessment Open full report However, this focus on the pre-decision stages of EIA, and the relative neglect of post-decision monitoring and post-auditing stages, can prevent an EIA system from being an effective environmental management tool. EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) is an important legislative and scientific tool that lends quality assistance to decision-making for sustainable development.
The incorporation of environmental considerations into the decision making process varies from. This paper critically reviews EIA reports of some randomly selected projects.
Interviews of EIA consultants, project proponents and concerned government officials have also been conducted to underpin the root causes of poor quality of EIA reports.