Debt sustainability in developing countries

Social Sharing A year boom in the prices of many commodities drew to a close last year. During previous booms, governments in developing countries have often squandered wealth accumulated through oil, gas and minerals, directing little of the proceeds toward effective investment or saving. When boom turned to bust, resource-rich countries were caught out, forced into debt spirals. The International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank are currently undertaking a review of their debt sustainability framework for low-income countries.

Debt sustainability in developing countries

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Developed countries share several other characteristics: They are highly industrialized. Their birth and death rates are stable.

They do not have excessively high birth rates because, thanks to quality medical care and high living standards, infant mortality rates are low. Families do not feel the need to have high numbers of children with the expectation that some will not survive.

No developed country has an infant mortality rate higher than 10 per 1, live births. In terms of life expectancyall developed countries boast numbers greater than 70 years; many average They have more women working, particularly in high-ranking executive positions.

These career-oriented women frequently choose to have smaller families or eschew having children altogether. In developed countries, more people drive cars, fly on airplanes, and power their homes with electricity and gas.

Inhabitants of developing countries often do not have access to technologies that require the use of these resources. They have higher levels of debt. Nations with developing economies cannot obtain the kind of seemingly bottomless financing that more developed nations can.

It quantifies life expectancy, educational attainment and income into a standardized number between 0 and 1; the closer to 1, the more developed the country. No minimum requirement exists for developed status, but most developed countries have HDIs of 0.

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For example, countries such as Mexico, Greece and Turkey are considered developed by some organizations and developing by others. That being said, here is a list that defines the generally agreed-upon status — developed or developing — of 25 countries around the world.

Nobel laureate economist Simon Kuznets once quipped that there are four types of countries: His implication was that the unique circumstances of Argentina and also of Japan over the last century make the country difficult to pigeonhole as either developed or developing.

During the first part of the 20th century, Argentina was economically strong, and its living standards were high. Unfortunately, the ensuing decades witnessed political upheaval, economic turmoil and rapid erosion in quality of life.

It is one of the strongest in South America or Central America. Many other issues, however, plague Argentina. There are large areas of Argentina where residents do not have access to clean water, healthy food or adequate medical care.

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Australia Australia is one of the most developed countries in the world. As ofthe HDI for Australia was 0. The Land Down Under boasts widespread industrialization, high literacy rates and quality health care for most of its citizens.

Brazil Brazil is not a developed country. Though it has several characteristics of one, including the largest economy in South America or Central America, Brazil is still considered as developing due to its low GDP per capita, low living standards, high infant mortality rate and other factors.

Brazil, as ofhas a population of In addition to a high birth rate, Brazil has a high death rate. Several factors contribute, including lack of clean water; limited access to adequate health care, particularly in rural areas; deplorable housing conditions in many regions; and substandard diets.

Developed countries have better infrastructure in place to support the health of their citizens. Once again, lack of quality health care prevents many citizens from growing into old age, since these are the years when quality health services are needed most. Canada Canada is a developed country.

As the 11th-largest world economyCanada has a diverse economic base. It has a wealth of natural resources, including oil, gas, and coal.

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As such, the country is able to support its own energy needs as well as export natural resources to other countries.

Canadians enjoy universal health care coveragewith all residents having access to free medical care through a government-provided program. Canada has a strong public school system and highly-ranked universities.

Canada also boasts a generous national paid leave program for new parents. With a robust economy, highly regarded educational institutions and a high standard of living for its residents, Canada displays the necessary attributes to make it a developed country. Chile Chile is a developed country.

Inthe country made the historic step of joining the OECD.Wikimedia Commons Countries that ran wild with spending through the boom years are now seeing their debt problems come home to roost.. We've ranked the 15 states with the worst debt to GDP ratios.

Debt is an efficient tool. It ensures access to other peoples’ raw materials and infrastructure on the cheapest possible terms. Dozens of countries must compete for shrinking export markets and can export only a limited range of products because of Northern protectionism and their lack of cash to invest in diversification.

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Debt sustainability in developing countries

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