Should constitutions be written

To carry out the ministry of evangelization given to the Church by Christ, the Church has the right and duty to erect and promote Universities and Faculties which depend upon herself. In this Constitution the terms Ecclesiastical Universities and Faculties mean those institutions of higher education which have been canonically erected or approved by the Apostolic See, which foster and teach sacred doctrine and the sciences connected therewith, and which have the right to confer academic degrees by the authority of the Holy See. They can be an Ecclesiastical University or Faculty sui iuris; or an Ecclesiastical Faculty within a Catholic University, [71] or an Ecclesiastical Faculty within some other kind of University. The purpose of Ecclesiastical Faculties are:

Should constitutions be written

First Council of Lyons — A.

Common Law, How to Implement this Court of Record. | Paul John

Council Fathers - A. Already in Pope Gregory IX had tried to define the questions between the two powers by calling a general council, but Frederick II by arms had prevented the council from meeting.

When Innocent IV succeeded as pope in he gave his earnest attention to renewing this policy. He was able to make his way in to Lyons, which was outside the direct authority of the emperor, and there proclaimed a council. Some letters of summons exist, dated Should constitutions be written January and the days following, in which the purpose of the council is stated thus: When the council opened on 26 Junein a meeting which was probably only preparatory, there were present three patriarchs and about bishops besides other religious and secular persons, among whom was the Latin emperor of Constantinople.

Many bishops and prelates were unable to attend the council because they had been prevented by the invasions of the Tartars in the east or the attacks of the Saracens in the holy Land, or because Frederick II had intimidated them especially the Sicilians and Germans.

Thus it was that the four chief parties of the council were the French and probably the Spanish, English and Italian.

In the three sessions which were held during the council 26 June, 5 and 17 July the fathers, not without hesitation and dispute, had to treat especially of Frederick II. There seems to have been a bitter conflict between Innocent IV on the one side and Thaddaeus of Suessa on the other.

The sources, especially the Brevis nota and Matthew Paris, tell us clearly about the nature of the discussion and the determined attitude of the pope, who induced the council to depose the emperor at the session on 17 Julya matter that appeared unprecedented to the fathers themselves.

The council on this question shows us clearly the critical position reached by the medieval theory and practice of ruling a christian state, which rested on a double order of authority.

In the same session of 17 July the council also approved some strictly legal constitutions and others on usury, the Tartars and the Latin east.


But the council, unlike the previous councils of the Middle Ages, did not approve canons concerning the reform of the church and the condemnation of heresy.

Enthusiasm for the Gregorian reform movement seems to have died down completely. The council, however, concerned itself with promoting and confirming the general canonical legislation for religious life. The transmission of the text of the constitutions is involved and still partly obscure.

Only in recent times has it been realised that the authentic and definitive drawing up of the constitutions, and their promulgation, took place after the council.

This collection consists of 22 constitutions, all of which are of a legal nature, and was sent to the universities by Innocent IV on 25 August Coll. A final collection Coll.

Should constitutions be written

IIIand was included except for const. I, however, is not identical with the constitutions of the council. For in it can be found neither the condemnation of Frederick II, which seems to have been the chief matter of the council, nor the five constitutions pertaining to the important questions introduced by Innocent IV at the opening of the council, namely those concerned with the Tartars, the Latin east and the crusades.

Stephen Kuttner has shown that the constitutions have been transmitted to us through three versions: Icontaining two constitutions 18 and 22 which are absent from the other versions, but lacking the constitutions not directly concerned with the law R Indeed, the origins of the constitutions must be placed before the council, as is shown by an earlier version of constitutions M 13, 15 and 19, antedating the council.

Evidently the council fathers were discussing matters which had already been partly worked out, and it was somewhat later that the constitutions acquired their more accurate and definite legal form.

All later editions followed Rm.

About Paul John Hansen

Boehmer and Msi[1] 2 afterwards in Msi 23 printed Coll. I, as such, has never been edited; but there exists both an indirect transmission Coll.

III, Liber Sextus and a direct, single-family transmission through eight manuscript codices: Our edition of the constitutions tries to give all the documents truly belonging to the council.CONSTITUTIONS. I. rescripts. Since in many articles of law failure to define their scope is blameworthy, after prudent consideration we decree that by the general clause “certain others” which frequently occurs in papal letters, no more than three or four persons are to be brought to court.

Theories about constitutions

AUTOBIOGRAPHY. -- With the Declaration of Independence. January 6, At the age of 77, I begin to make some memoranda and state some recollections of dates & facts concerning myself, for my own more ready reference & for the information of my family. Constitution, the body of doctrines and practices that form the fundamental organizing principle of a political some cases, such as the United States, the constitution is a specific written document; in others, such as the United Kingdom, it is a collection of documents, statutes, and traditional practices that are generally accepted as governing political matters.

Oklahoma City University Law Review; State Constitutions and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, by Robert Dowlut & Janet A. Knoop. Alternative Titles: Saint Ignatius of Loyola, San Ignacio de Loyola Ignatius was born in the ancestral castle of the Loyolas in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa.

Should constitutions be written

The youngest son of a noble and wealthy family, Ignatius became, in , a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de. Justice Scalia delivered the opinion of the Court.. We consider whether a District of Columbia prohibition on the possession of usable handguns in the home violates the Second Amendment to the Constitution.

I. The District of Columbia generally prohibits the possession of handguns.