The impact of media platforms and texts on activism and transnational political communities

Introduction to Media Studies 4 units The objective of this class is to enhance students' knowledge of media's industrial and cultural functions by introducing them to key perspectives and methods of study that stress a how media systems have and continue to develop in the United States and across the globe as well as b how we use and make meaning with media as part of our everyday lived experiences.

The impact of media platforms and texts on activism and transnational political communities

Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity, originally published in Looking back toit is not to discuss events that were formative for my year-old self but to draw attention to the range of initiatives that gained impetus in that atmosphere: Global campaigns A central transnational experience in the second half of the twentieth century was the momentous struggle against apartheid.

Apartheid was such a monstrous system that it demanded precedent-setting responses. An example from my work with war resisters is that for the first time the UN called on citizens to refuse to fight for their country, a precedent that led to conscientious objection becoming a ground for asylum first for South Africans and then more widely.

Today various peoples — most obviously but by no means only the Palestinians — liken their situation to apartheid in order to appeal to the precedents set in the anti-apartheid struggle. Other campaigns have also proved formative in the spread of transnational activism on a range of issues.

Rights-based campaigns — be they for human rights in general or to support particular groups denied their rights — have strengthened human rights instruments, including global and regional conventions and supra-national tribunals.

Feminism, peace and ecology are also perspectives that cut across national frameworks. Transnational campaigns have targeted international institutions, states and corporations, or sometimes a combination of the three.

Whether or not they have succeeded in attaining particular demands, overall they have built up the capacity for citizens groups to react transnationally on a range of issues and also have changed the terms of debate over a number of internationally agreed standards.

Campaigns against specific instances of logging, mining, genetic engineering and mega-projects such as big dams have also changed the official terms of reference. While the campaign against the Narmada dams in India did not stop their construction, it did succeed in changing the policy of certain governments towards such projects and convinced the World Bank to withdraw and then sponsor an independent World Dam Commission to lay down standards for the future Kothari Certain concerted transnational campaigns directly address a global issue: Currently the global campaign on climate change embraces many different perspectives and actors, but benefits from the connections forged in earlier campaigns.

Such changes of attitude testify to the impact of campaigns, although it should also be recognised that corporations rarely acknowledge that they heed boycotters or that their profits are affected.

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This critique has been made in detail in relation to sweatshops Seidmanlogging World Rainforest Movement and mining Moody and at www. A central part of this capacity is counter-information. Counter-information Credible information is central to the moral authority of citizens groups, and a host of groups are currently monitoring issues of transnational concern.

Since the Worldwatch Institute was founded in — mainly monitoring environmental issues — the Watch idea has spread. This monitoring is vital in strengthening the case of advocacy groups, in showing either the inadequacy of existing standards or failure to comply with them.

It also can help maintain activist networks in a state of preparedness, aware — or able to update themselves quickly — about how the situations that concern them are developing and better able to respond quickly as the need arises. The world-wide web has revolutionised the scene for activists.

It can be unstoppable when someone leaks information that power-holders want to hide. An outstanding example is the defeat of the Multilateral Agreement on Investment MAIa treaty to limit the powers of local authorities apropos foreign investors. Somebody leaked the draft agreement, and soon it was freely available — together with expert analysis.

Repressive regimes have probably less to fear from transnational web protests than have multinational corporations. A multinational corporation, on the other hand, cannot prevent circulation of damaging information or images.

When a local campaign is not making headway either because of repression or through lack of social responsethen it throws a boomerang towards the rest of the world.

The impact of media platforms and texts on activism and transnational political communities

The way that Greenpeace International orchestrates international pressure provides a particularly clear example of the boomerang effect. Local groups approach Greenpeace to take up their cause. If Greenpeace makes it a priority, then the campaign is likely to combine various levels and styles of action: However, more frequently, it takes somewhat more diffuse forms — involving chains of connections and coalitions of groups, including both NGOs and movements, or through a rapid internet mobilisation.

The flight of the boomerang might pass through NGOs and activist constituencies, media, government departments and intergovernmental institutions before returning to make a difference at the point from where it was thrown.

People power: transnational activism

The social movement scholar Sidney Tarrow notes that the boomerang works best when thrown upwards in terms of global hierarchies of power rather than horizontally towards parallel campaigns equally distant from metropolitan power centres. In short, a coalition that originates as an act of solidarity reproduces some features of global power relationships.

· media to political debate and opposition politics in the country, Bahrain appeared to be an ideal case study for examining how authoritarian downgrading is impacting online activism.

Given the dearth of research into the impact of authoritarian encroachment on online activism  · The development of social media started off with simple platforms such as Unlike instant messaging clients, such as ICQ and AOL's AIM, or chat clients like IRC, iChat or Chat Television, was the first online business that was created for real people, using their real names.

The first social networks were short-lived, however, because their users lost This study explores the role played by social media in reshaping the repression-mobilization relationship. Drawing on the case of the Occupy Wall Street movement, we examine the impact of Facebook and Twitter on the spatial diffusion of protests during a period of heightened state How do media platforms and texts contribute to activism and the formation of transnational political communities and what are the mechanisms and consequences of this activism in your case?The media platform is mainly used in campaigning of various aspects that .

MCS.101: Transformations: From Mass Media to Social Media

Political Action Committees, and the media (Lopez and Taylor, ; Navarrette, ). Catering to the diverse immigrant populations in Miami-Dade is a rich landscape of community media outlets focusing on the multiple Spanish-speaking communities that.

· American Muslim Women, Religious Authority, and Activism. Cover: American Muslim Women, Religious Authority, and Activism and political communities that have sustained the discussions and debates on women and gender among American Muslims.

“American Muslim Women, Religious Authority, and Activism overall is a significant and

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